Authors of Antiquity: An Alternative History is sketched for the Students of Life
AUTHORS of ANTIQUITY         LEGEND:                                                                            
Implications of a Eusebian fiction postulate:     P Neo-pythagorean and/or neo-platonic philosophers, historians, authors
        C Christian writer, author, apologist (via the Eusebian theory of history)
Was christianity a Constantinian invention?     CB Christian Bishop (via the Eusebian theory of history)
An alternative theory        H/W Historian, philosopher, writer (considered "neutral")
of the history of antiquity       RE Roman Emperor (elevated to the purple)
PRF Brown        
Author CAT Birth Death ST DR Comments
From the centuries BCE       BCE PRE-NICAEAN Authors
Pythagoras ? -582 -507   Greek philosopher and mathematician
Socrates W -470 -399   Greek philosopher 
Plato W -427 -347   Greek philosopher and writer (Student of Socrates)
Aristotle W -384 -322   Greek philosopher and writer (student of Plato)
Marcus Terentius Varro  W -116 -27   Roman scholar and writer
Lucius Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor  W -100 ??   Greek scholar of Rome (fl. 70 BCE)
Marcus Tullius Cicero  W -106 -43   Roman orator, statesman, political theorist, and philosopher
Nigidius Figulus W -98 -45   Learned man of Rome, neo-pythagorean
First Century       PRE-NICAEAN Authors
Seneca (the Elder) W -54 39   Roman rhetorician and writer
Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso) W -43 17   Roman poet
King Juba II (of Lybia) W -52 23   Author (in Greek) on history, natural history, geography, etc
Thrasyllus of Mendes W ?? 36   Egyptian author, astrologer, astronomer and mathematician
Philo-Judaeus P -15 50   Alexandrean Greek speaking Jewish writer-philosopher
Seneca (the Younger) W -4 65   Roman philosopher, statesman, dramatist (Fraudulent correspondence with Paul)
Moderatus of Gades (Cadiz, Spain) P ? ?     Greek neopythagorean philosopher and writer (first century)
Apollonius of Tyana P -4 90?     Neo-Pythagorean, aka Balinas, aka Balinus
Jesus of Nazareth C 0 33   Letter (and response) written to Abgarus 
Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Peter & Judas CB     The Apostles - purported authors of respective gospels
Jude CB      
Pontius Pilate RG ? ?   Roman governer (Letter of Pilate fraudulent)
Barnabas  CB 0?   ST    epistle
Pliny the Elder PW 23 79   Roman philosopher and writer
Marcus Cocceius Nerva RE 30 98   Emperor 90-98 (1st "Good")
Musonius Rufus  P 30 100     Roman philosopher, correspondence with Apollonius
Clement of Rome  CB 30? 96 ST    First Pope??, Epistles
Flavius Josephus H 37 100   Jewish Historian (Antiquities)
Plutarch, Mestrius H 45 120?   Greek historian, biographer, writer, magistrate (roman empire)
Ignatius of Antioch  CB 050? 100? ST    aka Theophorus
Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus) RE 53 117   Emperor 98-117 (2nd "Good")
Cornelius Tacitus H 53 120?   Roman historian (Reports Nero persecuted christians)
Thallus H 60?? 180?   Chronologer (since Fall of Troy) - referenced 
Polycarp  CB 069? 155 ST     
Pliny the Younger PW 63 113   Roman philosopher and writer (Letter about christians)
Nicomachus of Gerasa (Jerash, Jordan)  P 60? 140?     Neopythagorean and mathematician, flourished c.110CE
Seutonius H 70 131   Roman historian (mentions "chrestus")
Papias  CB 070?   ST    Bishop of Hierapolis, companian Polycarp
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Traianus) RE 76 138   Emperor 117-138 (3rd "Good")
Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius etc RE 86 161   Emperor 138-161 (4th "Good")
Quadratus C 88? 130?? First Apologist (via Eusebius)
Simon Magus CH ?? ?? Magician, heretic, AKA Simon the Sorcerer, Simon of Gitta,
Phlegon H 99 199   Greek writer, historian of Olympiads
Aristo of Pela C 90?? ?? History of Siega of Jews (via Eusebius)
Agrippa Castor C 90?? ?? Wrote against Basilides Gnosticism (via Eusebius)
Longinus (not known, 1st-3rd CE?) W 1st ??   Greek teacher of rhetoric - author of "On the Subliime"
Second Century       PRE-NICAEAN Authors
Numenius of Apamea ? 160?       Neopythagorean philosopher, writer
Aelianus Tacticus W 2nd 2nd   Greek military writer, living in Rome
Justin Martyr  C 100? 165 ST    Apologist
Aquila of Sinope (of Pontus) C 100? ? Kinsman of Hadrian, OT translation to Greek
Hermas ? 100?       "The Shepherd"
Valentinius CG 100 153 gnostic christian -via Tertullian (Lalentinians)
Aristides the Philosopher C 100?     Great Apologist
Hegesippus C 110 180 chronicler, counterer of heresies
Marcion of Sinope CH 110? 160 Marcionism founder
Melito of Sardis CB 117?? 180   Bishop, christian writer (via Eusebius)
Basilides CH 117 138 Basilidean followers Gnostic; Ref Iraneus
Theophilus CB 120?       Bishop of Antioch
Tatian C 120? 185     Apologist, wrote the Diatesseron
Irenaeus of Lyons  CB 120? 200? ST     
Lucian of Samosata WC 120 185? Greek rhetorician satirist writer (references "christians")
Alciphron W 2nd 2nd   Writer, Greek rhetorician, collection of "Fictitious Letters" in Attic dialect
Marcus Aurelius (Antoninus) RE 121 180   Emperor 160-180,  (5th "Good"), Decree? (Forged?)
Aulus Gellius W 125 180   Latin author, grammarian ("Attic Nights")
Polycrates of Ephesus CB 130 196   Letter to Victor (via Eusebius)
Dionysius (of Alexandria) the Great CB 130? 190?     The Great (Eusebius)
Dionysius of Corinth CB 130?? ??   Letters (7) via Eusebius (wrtitten circa 168-176)
Pinytus of Crete CB ?? 180   Bishop of Gnosos, Letters to Dionysius (via E)
Saint Apollonius C 135?? 186 Beheaded by Commodus (after Marcus Aurelius)
Mathetes C 150?     Earliest apologetic (defence)
Rhodo C 140? ?? Several Books; wrote against Marcion (via E)
Serapion of Antioch CB 150?? ??   Letters quoted by Eusebius
Athenagoras C 150?     quoted by Methodius
Bardesanes  C 154 222     fragments (contra Marcion)
Clement of Alexandria C 155? 215      
Julius Africanus C 160? 240?     Father of Christian Chronology
Minucius Felix C 160     Latin Apologist (similar to Tertullion)
Dio Cassius H 165 230   Roman historian
Hippolytus  C 170? 236 ST    fragments.
Flavius Philostratus W 175 245   Sophist (The Life of Apollonius of Tyana)
Claudius Aelianus  W 175 235   Roman author and greek-speaking teacher of rhetoric ("Various History")
Caius C 180?     against montanist?
Apollonius ??  C 2nd Against the "Montanists" (via Eusebius)
Alexander (of Cappadocia,Jerusalem) CB 2nd 250   Letters (116 year old bishop Jerusalem Narcissus)
Origen C 185 254     6000 scrolls; Hexapla (OT: tabulated translations); studied by Eusebius and Pamphilus
Apollinaris Claudius C 2nd 2nd Apologist aka "of Hierapolis" - fragments (1st 'catholic')
Diognetus C 2nd Unknown Recipient of "Epistle of Mathetes to Diognesus 
Ammonius Saccas P 2nd 245   Neoplatonist philosopher: Plotinus, Longinus,Origen,Herennius(pupils); claimed christian
Third Century       PRE-NICAEAN Authors
Cornelius (of Rome) CB 200?? 252   Letters (1. to Fabius;)
Athenaeus of Naucratis W 2nd ??   Greek author (fl.200) writer of "The Deipnosophists"
Novatian C 200?     Novatist schismatic, Roman anti-pope
Julian the Theurgist W 3rd ??   Writer of "The Chaldean Oracles"
Diogenes Laertius W 3rd ??   Writer & biographer of the Greek philosophers
Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus) RE 200 260   Emperor 253-260
Decius Trajan (Emperor 249-251) RE 201 251   Purported persecutions; libelli, history fragmentary
Plotinus P 205? 270   Neoplatonist - father of (via Porphyry)
Alexander Severus  RE 208 235   Emperor 222-235
Dionysius of Rome  CB 210? 268 ST     
Mani the Prophet M- 210 276 Founder of Manichaeism (Persion Gnostic)  Codex Manichaicus Coloniensis 
Cyprian of Carthage  CB 210?   ST     
Gregory Thaumaturgus  CB 212 275 ST    Read Origen
Cassius Dionysius Longinus P 213 273   Greek rhetorician philosopher, rival of Plotinus
Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus RE 218 268   (co) Emperor 253-268; Decree ?(via E)
Malchion C 220?     Against Paul of Samosata
Commodianus C 230?      
Porphyry P 234 305   Violently Anti-christian Neoplatonist philosopher
Diocletian  RE 236 316   Emperor 284-305, Abdicated to become a farmer
Victorinus  C 240? 303 ST    ecclesiastical writer
Iamblichus of Chalcis P 245 325   Neoplatonist
Hermias C 250? Obscure apologist "Derision of Gentle Philosophers"
Peter of Alexandria  CB 250? 311 ST    Bishop of Alexandria
Pamphilus  C 250? 309 ST    Origen expert, Hexapla
Methodius C 250 311     via Jerome (non Eusebius)
Victorinus of Petau CB 250? 303   Bishop Martry - Latin C writer 
Malchion (of Antioch) C 2nd? Writings (against Paul of Samosata) via Eusebius
Anatolius of Laodicea in Syria CB ? ?   Writings via Eusebius
Phileas of Thmuis CB 250? 307   Acts, writings via Eusebius
Galerius RE 250 311   RE (305-311); Galerius Maximianus; Edict via Eusebius 
Sabinus C 2nd? Letter to Governors (via E)
Arnobius C 260?      
Alexander of Alexandria  CB 260? 326 ST     
Eusebius Pamphili of Caesarea  CB 265 340     Historian
Constantine I (Emperor 306-337) RE 272 337   Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus 
Hierocles PW ? ?   Governor of Bythnia (302) - "A Friend of the Truth"
Aphrahat/Aphraates  C 280 367     the Persian sage
Lactantius C 280? 340?     Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius
Athanasius  C 296 373 ST  DR  Father of Orthodoxy
Alexander of Lycopolis C 300?      
Author Unknown C 3rd Pistis Sophia (Gnostic text) - dated 250-300
Miltiades (Pope 311-314) C 3rd 314   Unknown background - 313: condemned Donatus Magnus
Maximin of Trier CB 3rd? 352    
Donatus Magnus CB 3rd? 355   Bishop Carthage - Donatist Schism (Heretic)
Fourth Century       POST-NICAEAN Authors
Hilary of Poitiers  CB 300 368 ST  DR  Bishop
Ephraim the Syrian CB 306 373 ST  DR   
Cyril of Jerusalem  CB 315 386 ST  DR   
Constantius II (Emperor 337-361) RE 317 361   Flavius Julius Constantius (2nd son Constantine & Fausta)
Gregory of Nyssa  CB 320 385 ST    Cappadocian Fathers
Gregory Nazianzen  CB 325 389 ST  DR   
Eunomius of Cyzicus C 326?? 393   Anomoean Arian: writings edicted for destruction
Basil the Great  CB 329 379 ST  DR   
Apollinaris (the Younger)  C 330? 390   Bishop of Laodicea
Ammianus Marcellinus  H 330? 392?   Historian, greek, army career (Res Gestae)
Julian (Emperor 360-363) RE 331 363   Flavius Claudius Julianus (related to Constantine)
Ambrose  CB 340 397 ST  DR   
Jerome  CB 340 420 ST  DR   
Rufinus C 340 410     Historian, (of Aquiliea)
Theodosius I (Emperor 379-395) RE 346 395   Flavius Theodosius (b.Cauca in Spain; catholic; anti-pagan)
Eunapius PH 347 40?   Greek sophist,historian (CE 270-404, incorporated by Zosimus?)
Plutarch (the Younger) P 350 433   Neoplatonic philosopher (Athens school: Proclus, Simplicius, Damascius)
John Chrysostom  CB 347 407 ST  DR   
Augustine of Hippo  CB 354   ST  DR   
John Cassian  C 360 435      
Sulpitius Severus  C 363 420     ecclesiastical writer
Philostorgius C 368 439 Historian (Fragment via Photius)
Hypatia of Alexandria P 370 415   Neoplatonic philosopher, mathematician, teacher 
Synesius (made Bishop of Ptolemais) P 373 414     Statesman,Neoplatonist (disciple Hypatia) then made Bishop (409-414), of high character
Sozomen  C 375 447     Historian
Socrates Scholasticus  C 379 450     Historian 
Philip of Side CH 380 431     Ecclesiastical Historian (against Julian) aka Philip Sidetes
Vincent of Lérins  C 390 450 ST    ecclesiastical writer
Theodoret CB 393 457     Historian, Bishop of Cyprus
Leo the Great, Pope  CB 395 461 ST  DR   
Fifth Century & Beyond       POST-NICAEAN Authors
Moses of Chorene  400 490     Armenian historian
Proclus, Lycaeus P 412 487   Greek neoplatonist philosopher (admired by Ralph Waldo Emerson)
Gennadius of Marseilles C 440      
Zosimus H 450? 518?   Historian (Pagan)
Mar Jacob  452 521      
Joannes Stobaeus H 450? ?   Compiler: greek (nonchristian) authors (poets,historians,orators,philosophers, physicians
Damascius P 480 5??   Neoplatonist: Alexandria - pupil Theon; Athens - headed Plato school at closure (CE 529)
Simplicius P 490 560   Neoplatonist: Alexandria - pupil Ammonius Hermiae (pupil Proclus); Athens (Damascius)
Venantius C 530 600     Latin Poet
Gregory the Great, Pope  CB 540 604 ST  DR  Pope
Muhammad the Prophet M 570 632 Founder of Islam
John of Damascus  CB 676 776 ST  DR   
Khalid (son of Umayyad Caliph Yazid II M 660? 720  
Jabir ibn Hayyan M 722 815   Alchemist, quoting Balinus
Photius CB 820 891   Patriarch Constantinople
Last Revised: 17 Apr 2006          
"It is, I think, expedient to set forth to all mankind        
the reasons by which I was convinced          
that the fabrication of the Galilaeans          
is a fiction of men composed by wickedness.        
Though it has in it nothing divine,          
by making full use of that part of the soul          
which loves fable and is childish and foolish,        
it has induced men to believe          
that the monstrous tale is truth."          
--- Emperor (360-363 CE) Flavius Claudius Julianus (the Apostate)    
"Against the Galileans" remains of the 3 books,        
excerpted from Cyril of Alexandria, Contra Julianum (1923)"